A nationwide strike has severely disrupted schools and public transport across France.
Workers are angry at being forced to retire later or face reduced pensions.
Police, lawyers and hospital and airport staff are joining school and transport workers for a general walkout that could include millions of people.
France’s largest nationwide strike in years was agreed by unions unhappy with President Emmanuel Macron’s plans for a universal points-based pension system.
Authorities have been trying to put in place plans to mediate the disruption.
French newspaper Le Monde described Thursday as “the moment of truth for Macron”, writing: “The next days are a decisive test for the head of state.”
Public transport will be seriously tested, with 90% of high-speed TGV and intercity trains cancelled. In Paris, just five of the city’s 16 metro lines are running.
Some regional train services will not run at all. International services such as Eurostar and Thalys will be affected, and Eurostar has announced a reeduced timeable until 10 December.
Hundreds of flights have also been cancelled. Air France said it would cancel 30% of internal flights and 30% of short-haul international flights, amid walk-outs by air traffic controllers.
Low-cost carrier EasyJet has cancelled 223 domestic and short-haul international flights, and warned passengers to expect delays.
Nurses and hospital staff, lawyers and police officers, refuse collectors, energy staff and postal workers are among others participating in industrial action.
France’s health minister said it was not yet clear how badly hospitals would be affected, but preparations had been made to deal with the strike.
Parents with children of primary school age will also be affected.
The largest primary school teachers’ union said it expected as many as four out of 10 schools to shut across the country. About 70% of primary teachers are expected to take industrial action.
The union representing secondary or high schools expects 60% of teachers to go on strike but schools are due to stay open.
Farmers, whose pensions are among the lowest in the country, have said they will not join Thursday’s strikes.
The industrial action is expected to last beyond Thursday and some trade union leaders have warned they will keep it up until Mr Macron abandons his campaign promise to overhaul the retirement system.
One opinion poll put public support for the strikes at 69%, with backing strongest among 18-34 year-olds.
The Macron administration will hope to avoid a repeat of the country’s general strike over pension reforms in 1995, which crippled the transport system for three weeks and drew massive popular support, forcing a government reversal.
While many commuters will not turn up for work on Thursday, those who plan to do so may use bikes and scooter networks to get around, as Paris residents did in September during a metro strike against planned pension reforms.
Interior Minister Christophe Castaner said on the eve of the strike he expected almost 250 demonstrations nationwide, some of which he said could turn violent.
“We know there will be lots of people in these protests and we know the risks. I have requested that systematically when there is rioting or violence we make arrests immediately,” he said.
A number of yellow-vest protesters known as “gilets jaunes” said they plan to join the demonstrations.
A recent poll concluded that 75% of people thought that pension reforms were necessary, but only a third believed the government could deliver them.
France currently has a system comprising dozens of different schemes and Mr Macron wants to create a unified system, which he says would be fairer.
His new plan aims to reward employees for each day worked, awarding points that would later be transferred into future pension benefits.
The official retirement age has been raised in the last decade from 60 to 62, but remains one of the lowest among the OECD group of rich nations – in the UK, for example, the retirement age is 66.
The move to a universal points-based pension system would remove the most advantageous pensions for a number of jobs ranging from sailors to lawyers and even opera workers.
Meanwhile, those retiring before 64 would receive a lower pension. For example, someone retiring at 63 would receive 5% less, so unions fear it will mean having to work longer for a lower pension.
Several workers have explained their grievances, ranging from poor salaries to frustration with the political class.
Paris metro driver Damien Vitry told the France Info news website that he provided a service so others could celebrate New Year’s Eve.
“You lose out with your family life and that’s why we get compensation,” he said. “This pension reform is a bit like a football match where they change the rules at half-time.
With all the added measures he would now have to work longer if he wanted a full pension, he complained.
Train driver Cyril Romero, from Toulouse, told France Info he would reconsider his job if the reforms went through.
“I started in 2001 with a contract that allowed me to leave at 50. But like everyone else, I got the reforms which pushed back my early retirement age to 52-and-a-half and then, in reality, 57-and-a-half for full pension. Now they want to make us work even longer.”
An unnamed history teacher, writing in Huffpost, was planning to strike on Friday as well as Thursday.
“For me, the pension reforms are one punch too many. We’re fighting not to lose hundreds of euros of pension a month – after more than 40 years in a job.
“How can you dream of ending your career in front of pupils beyond the age of 70, in worsening conditions and on what for many of us is just a minimum wage?”